청양출장샵δ24시출장샵♫청양시흥 마사지(청양모텔)➺(청양오피 투샷)╒청양종아리 근육 마사지⇡청양보령 안마방↶청양모텔 젤✌청양목포 안마방☂청양트랜스젠더 안마방

As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

카지노사이트
French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

청양출장샵◑예약㊣청양시흥 마사지(청양외국인 안마방)✓(청양마사지 롤러)╟청양부산 타이 마사지♥청양코 높아지는 마사지✣청양소라넷 마사지◁청양송우리 안마방♠청양마사지 관리사

The governments of more than 190 nations 강진마사지 텀블러 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

청양출장샵エ예약╉청양시흥 마사지(청양지저분한 섹스 나고야 여성 마사지)♣(청양검단 마사지)⇢청양동인천 마사지♘청양만짜이 마사지⇦청양아가씨 썰◊청양한국야동 안마방▐청양강서구 마사지

Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

청양출장샵◑예약금없는출장샵ψ청양시흥 마사지(청양경락 마사지)オ(청양대전 출장안마)➢청양안마방 안마☻청양두통 완화 마사지♧청양무릎 마사지φ청양역삼역 안마방✂청양안마방 대딸

Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 온라인카지노 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

청양출장샵웃예약♣청양시흥 마사지(청양마사지 알바)➵(청양대구 모텔 가격)➻청양성인마사지⇛청양상남동 안마방△청양멜라니┿청양여수 마사지▦청양오산 타이 마사지

They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 함안안마방 사이트 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

청양출장샵✲예약♠청양시흥 마사지(청양인덕원 안마방)㍿(청양안마방 도찰)❀청양인천공항 마사지╊청양거제 안마방◎청양청주 용암동 안마방┵청양상대보호구역❧청양안마방 후기

No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 창원출장샵 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

청양출장샵청양양구 안마방

  • 남원용원 마사지
  • 청양안마방 알바 썰
  • 청양출장샵
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    청양출장샵₪예약ღ청양시흥 마사지(청양명동 마사지)κ(청양얼굴 작아지는 마사지)£청양안마방 대전☏청양안마방 역립✯청양천호 안마방⇌청양링검 마사지☄청양검암 안마방

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 용인신도림 안마방 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 온라인카지노 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    전주출장안마
    청양카톡 출장 만남 카지노사이트 하남구글 안마방
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 대구출장샵 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    청양출장샵♥예약금없는출장샵√청양시흥 마사지(청양안마방 아침)⊙(청양중국 대딸)큐청양제목없음 안마방☣청양갓비비 마사지♚청양안마◇청양전주 터미널 모텔◊청양울산 안마방 추천

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 제주도김포 타이 마사지 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    청양출장샵☆예약금없는출장샵⇋청양시흥 마사지(청양콜걸샵)◈(청양만남 카톡)ク청양비엔티엔 마사지♬청양부산역 안마방セ청양광주 터미널 근처 모텔◊청양중국 대딸➷청양건대 마사지

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 전주출장안마 .

    군산괌 마사지
    인제마사지 유출 군산출장안마 청양안마도
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    청양출장샵◐출장부르는법◘청양시흥 마사지(청양광명사거리 안마방)♨(청양안마방 요도염)✂청양안마방 빨리싸면↷청양대구 모텔 아가씨✖청양옥계 마사지┲청양국 안마방 초이스┪청양tumblr 마사지

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 포항출장안마 .

    청양출장샵♪예약금없는출장샵的청양시흥 마사지(청양안마방 런베스트)╫(청양모텔 젤)↤청양조건 카페╟청양금천구 마사지╔청양마사지 대딸δ청양안마방 강남♖청양갑상선 마사지

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 전주출장안마 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 군포콜걸 후기 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    청양출장샵⇌출장부르는법╬ 청양시흥 마사지(청양송원장 마사지)☁(청양다리 마사지 기계)╞청양태국 마사지 서비스✕청양태국 마사지 가격☼청양김포 마사지エ청양스웨디시 마사지 단점▫청양모텔 다방 가격

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    청양출장샵◊예약금없는출장샵↕청양시흥 마사지(청양대전복합터미널 마사지)➨(청양마사지 젤)☳청양종아리 마사지U청양까치산 안마방▌청양햄스터 마사지★청양안마방 똥꼬♦청양익산 마사지

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 속초항문 마사지 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 온라인카지노 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 구미출장안마 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 문경안마방 사이트 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 카지노사이트.xyz . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    청양출장샵╣24시출장샵チ청양시흥 마사지(청양마사지 후기)┓(청양공항신도시 마사지)ハ청양여교사 마사지▫청양사우나 마사지✿청양수원역 마사지▪청양일본마사지«청양수내역 마사지

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 바카라사이트 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 카지노사이트 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and smatoos.xyz showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    청양출장샵→출장부르는법♘청양시흥 마사지(청양타이마사지)▲(청양대구 출장 마사지)⇜청양용암동 모텔☎청양김천 마사지♛청양영천 안마방↫청양소라넷 마사지♠청양안마방 지루

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    부평강서 마사지
    온라인카지노 영덕마포 마사지 수원출장안마
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    청양출장샵╳24시출장샵♐청양시흥 마사지(청양성내동 안마방)↔(청양중랑구 마사지)◇청양용산 안마방♮청양안마방 cctv↾청양상록수역 안마방♟청양거제도 안마방↔청양상암동 안마방

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.청양출장샵청양유성 안마방✪청양가슴 마사지↢(청양문산 안마방)청양대구 커플 동영상ο청양목포 여관┡청양마사지 출장⇚청양인천 출장 마사지╳군산출장샵예약금없는출장샵청양출장업계위╩청양사타구니 마사지♦‹청양마사지 ㅅㅅ›청양프리마호텔 마사지ε청양용암동 마사지▪청양합정 안마방ム청양출장 선입금♯청양출장샵이천안마방 전화번호 저장청양수원 출장╨청양안마방 스킬╥<청양출장최강미녀>청양후두 마사지❀청양칠곡 안마방♮청양오산 안마방╀청양안마방 tsル청양주안 마사지♨청양안마방 튜브☂﹝청양얼굴 림프 마사지﹞청양전립선 마사지 비용β청양안마방 전화▧청양안마방 런베스트┨청양엄태웅 안마방⇁청양광혜원 마사지♠청양서울대입구 안마방┐{청양광주 터미널 근처 모텔}청양전민동 마사지♫청양대구 전립선 마사지♦청양양평 마사지♥청양출장 사기δ청양태국 마사지 서비스➡청양대구 출장 마사지▣〔청양송도 마사지〕청양아마 시안✆청양송우리 안마방⇚청양강릉 안마방◘청양마사지 tumblr↞24시출장샵천안안마방 20살출장부르는법청양50m⊙청양안마방 아영이 토렌트┳(청양영천 안마방)청양여성전용 안마방♐청양순천 마사지┡청양구로디지털단지 마사지マ청양안마방 후장↔청양출장샵청양출장샵포항출장샵청양춘천 마사지청양안마방 ㅇㄷ청양마포구 안마방청양서혜부 마사지 란청양출장샵청양블라디보스톡 마사지▦청양마사지⇤〖청양안마방 황제의자〗청양중국식 마사지⇡청양구로디지털단지 안마방♫청양코 마사지↚청양마사지 카페ラ무안공항신도시 마사지

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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